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Typhoid fever is estimated to affect over 20 million people per year worldwide, with infants, children, and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia experiencing the greatest burden of disease. The Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC) aims to support the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines into Gavi-eligible countries in an effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from typhoid. TyVAC-Nepal is a large-scale, participant- and observer-blind, individually randomized, controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a newly developed typhoid conjugate vaccine in an urban setting in Nepal. In order to effectively deliver the trial, a number of key elements required meticulous planning. Public engagement strategies were considered early, and involved the implementation of a tiered approach. Approximately 300 staff were employed and trained in order to achieve the mass vaccination of 20 000 children aged 9 months to ≤16 years old over a 4-month period. There were 19 vaccination clinics established across the Lalitpur metropolitan city in the Kathmandu valley. Participants will be followed for 2 years post-vaccination to measure the rate reduction of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in the vaccination arm as compared to the control arm. The experience of conducting this large-scale vaccine trial suggests that comprehensive planning, continuous monitoring, and an ability to adapt plans in response to feedback are key.

Original publication




Journal article


Clin Infect Dis

Publication Date





S138 - S145


Nepal, implementation, logistics, randomized control trial, typhoid vaccine, Adolescent, Child, Child, Preschool, Health Plan Implementation, Humans, Infant, Mass Vaccination, Nepal, Organization and Administration, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Typhoid Fever, Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines, Vaccines, Conjugate