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Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Sepsis can be caused by a broad range of pathogens; however, bacterial infections represent the majority of sepsis cases. Up to 42% of sepsis presentations are culture negative, suggesting a non-bacterial cause. Despite this, diagnosis of viral sepsis remains very rare. Almost any virus can cause sepsis in vulnerable patients (e.g., neonates, infants, and other immunosuppressed groups). The prevalence of viral sepsis is not known, nor is there enough information to make an accurate estimate. The initial standard of care for all cases of sepsis, even those that are subsequently proven to be culture negative, is the immediate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. In the absence of definite diagnostic criteria for viral sepsis, or at least to exclude bacterial sepsis, this inevitably leads to unnecessary antimicrobial use, with associated consequences for antimicrobial resistance, effects on the host microbiome and excess healthcare costs. It is important to understand non-bacterial causes of sepsis so that inappropriate treatment can be minimised, and appropriate treatments can be developed to improve outcomes. In this review, we summarise what is known about viral sepsis, its most common causes, and how the immune responses to severe viral infections can contribute to sepsis. We also discuss strategies to improve our understanding of viral sepsis, and ways we can integrate this new information into effective treatment.

Original publication




Journal article


Front Immunol

Publication Date





dengue virus, epidemiology, herpes simplex virus, human enterovirus, human parechovirus, immune pathogenesis, influenza virus, viral sepsis, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Antiviral Agents, Global Burden of Disease, Humans, Immunocompromised Host, Prevalence, Viremia, Viruses