Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND: Shedding of Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi in the stool or urine leads to contamination of food or water, which is a prerequisite for transmission of enteric fever. Currently, there are limited data on the effect of vaccination or prior exposure on stool shedding. METHODS: Six Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi human challenge studies were conducted between 2011 and 2017. Participants were either unvaccinated or vaccinated with 1 of 4 vaccines: Vi-polysaccharide (Vi-PS), Vi-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Vi-TT), live oral Ty21a vaccine, or an experimental vaccine (M01ZH09). Daily stool cultures were collected for 14 days after challenge. RESULTS: There were 4934 stool samples collected from 430 volunteers. Participants who received Vi-PS or Vi-TT shed less than unvaccinated participants (odds ratio [OR], 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.77; P = .010 and OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19-0.91, P = .029 for Vi-PS and Vi-TT, respectively). Higher anti-Vi immunoglobulin G titers were associated with less shedding of S. Typhi (P < .0001). A nonsignificant reduction in shedding was associated with Ty21a vaccine (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.27-1.20; P = .140). Individuals previously exposed to S. Typhi shed less than previously unexposed individuals (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8; P = .016). Shedding of S. Typhi was more common than S. Paratyphi. CONCLUSIONS: Prior vaccination with Vi vaccines, or natural infection, reduces onward transmission of S. Typhi. Field trials of Vi-TT should be designed to detect indirect protection, reflecting the consequence of reduced stool shedding observed in the human challenge model.

Original publication




Journal article


Clin Infect Dis

Publication Date





1265 - 1273


Salmonella Typhi, Vi-polysaccharide vaccine, indirect effects, stool shedding, typhoid conjugate vaccine, Bacterial Shedding, Feces, Humans, Paratyphoid Fever, Salmonella paratyphi A, Salmonella typhi, Typhoid Fever, Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines