Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA)-restricted CD8(+) T lymphocyte (CTL) responses are crucial to HIV-1 control. Although HIV can evade these responses, the longer-term impact of viral escape mutants remains unclear, as these variants can also reduce intrinsic viral fitness. To address this, we here developed a metric to determine the degree of HIV adaptation to an HLA profile. We demonstrate that transmission of viruses that are pre-adapted to the HLA molecules expressed in the recipient is associated with impaired immunogenicity, elevated viral load and accelerated CD4(+) T cell decline. Furthermore, the extent of pre-adaptation among circulating viruses explains much of the variation in outcomes attributed to the expression of certain HLA alleles. Thus, viral pre-adaptation exploits 'holes' in the immune response. Accounting for these holes may be key for vaccine strategies seeking to elicit functional responses from viral variants, and to HIV cure strategies that require broad CTL responses to achieve successful eradication of HIV reservoirs.

Original publication

DOI

10.1038/nm.4100

Type

Journal article

Journal

Nat Med

Publication Date

06/2016

Volume

22

Pages

606 - 613

Keywords

AIDS Vaccines, Adaptation, Physiological, Africa, Southern, British Columbia, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Cohort Studies, Evolution, Molecular, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Histocompatibility Antigens Class I, Humans, Immune Evasion, Immunity, Cellular, Linear Models, Models, Immunological, Proportional Hazards Models, Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, Viral Load, Virus Replication