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CD8(+) T cells contribute to the control of HIV, but it is not clear whether initial immune responses modulate the viral set point. We screened high-risk uninfected women twice a week for plasma HIV RNA and identified 12 hyperacute infections. Onset of viremia elicited a massive HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell response, with limited bystander activation of non-HIV memory CD8(+) T cells. HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells secreted little interferon-γ, underwent rapid apoptosis, and failed to upregulate the interleukin-7 receptor, known to be important for T cell survival. The rapidity to peak CD8(+) T cell activation and the absolute magnitude of activation induced by the exponential rise in viremia were inversely correlated with set point viremia. These data indicate that rapid, high magnitude HIV-induced CD8(+) T cell responses are crucial for subsequent immune control of acute infection, which has important implications for HIV vaccine design.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/j.immuni.2015.08.012

Type

Journal article

Journal

Immunity

Publication Date

15/09/2015

Volume

43

Pages

591 - 604

Keywords

Adolescent, Apoptosis, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Female, Flow Cytometry, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, Kinetics, Lymphocyte Activation, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2, RNA, Viral, Time Factors, Viral Load, Viremia, Young Adult, fas Receptor