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The central importance for global public health policy of delivering life-saving vaccines for all children makes the development of efficacious and safe needle-free alternatives to hypodermic needles, preferably in a thermostable form, a matter of pressing urgency. This paper comprehensively reviews past in vivo studies on intradermal powder immunization with vaccine formulations that do not require refrigeration. Particular emphasis is given to the immune response in relation to antigen adjuvantation. While needle-free intradermal delivery of vaccines induces a predominantly Th2-type immune response, adjuvants powerfully enhance and modulate the magnitude and nature of the elicited immune response at various effector sites.

Original publication




Journal article


Expert Rev Vaccines

Publication Date





687 - 702


Adjuvants, Immunologic, Animals, Humans, Immunization, Injections, Intradermal, Powders, Proteins, Vaccines