Assessment of T-dependent and T-independent immune responses in cattle using a B cell ELISPOT assay.
Grant CF., Lefevre EA., Carr BV., Prentice H., Gubbins S., Pollard AJ., Charreyre C., Charleston B.
Understanding the mechanisms that maintain protective antibody levels after immunisation is important for vaccine design. In this study, we have determined the kinetics of plasma and memory B cells detectable in the blood of cattle immunised with model T-dependent or T-independent antigens. Immunisation with the T-D antigen resulted in an expansion of TNP-specific plasma cells post-TNP primary and booster immunisations, which was associated with increased titres of TNP-specific IgG antibodies. Although no TNP-specific memory B cells were detected in the T-D group following the primary immunisation, we detected an increase in the number of TNP-specific memory B cells post-TNP boost. In contrast, no TNP-specific plasma or memory B cells were detected after primary or secondary immunisation with the T-I antigen. We then investigated if immunisation with a third party antigen (tetanus toxin fragment C, TTC) would result in a bystander stimulation and increase the number of TNP-specific plasma and memory B cells in the T-D and/or T-I group. TTC immunisation in the T-D group resulted in a small increase in the number of TNP-specific plasma cells post-TTC primary immunisation and boost, and in an increase in the number of TNP-specific memory B cells post-TTC boost. This bystander effect was not observed in the animals previously immunised with the T-I antigen. In conclusion, the present study characterised for the first time the B cell response in cattle to immunisation with T-D and T-I antigens and showed that bystander stimulation of an established T-D B cell memory response may occur in cattle.