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Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) remains the sole licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), despite its variable efficacy in protecting against pulmonary TB. The development of effective TB vaccines faces significant challenges, marked by the absence of validated correlates of protection and predictive animal models. Strategic approaches to enhance TB vaccines and augment BCG efficacy include utilising prime-boost strategies with viral-vectored vaccines and exploring innovative delivery techniques, such as mucosal vaccine administration. Viral vectors offer numerous advantages, including the capacity to accommodate genes encoding extensive antigenic fragments and the induction of robust immune responses. Aerosol delivery aligns with the route of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and holds the potential to enhance protective mucosal immunity. Aerosolised viral-vectored vaccines overcome anti-vector immunity, facilitating repeated aerosol deliveries.

Original publication




Journal article


Curr Opin Virol

Publication Date