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MOTIVATION: Pediatric kidney disease is a widespread, progressive condition that severely impacts growth and development of children. Chronic kidney disease is often more insidious in children than in adults, usually requiring a renal biopsy for diagnosis. Biopsy evaluation requires copious examination by trained pathologists, which can be tedious and prone to human error. In this study, we propose an artificial intelligence (AI) method to assist pathologists in accurate segmentation and classification of pediatric kidney structures, named as AI-based Pediatric Kidney Diagnosis (APKD). RESULTS: We collected 2935 pediatric patients diagnosed with kidney disease for the development of APKD. The dataset comprised 93 932 histological structures annotated manually by three skilled nephropathologists. APKD scored an average accuracy of 94% for each kidney structure category, including 99% in the glomerulus. We found strong correlation between the model and manual detection in detected glomeruli (Spearman correlation coefficient r = 0.98, P 

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Adult, Humans, Child, Artificial Intelligence, Kidney, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic