Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

To discover regulatory elements driving the specificity of gene expression in different cell types and regions of the developing human brain, we generated an atlas of open chromatin from nine dissected regions of the mid-gestation human telencephalon, as well as microdissected upper and deep layers of the prefrontal cortex. We identified a subset of open chromatin regions (OCRs), termed predicted regulatory elements (pREs), that are likely to function as developmental brain enhancers. pREs showed temporal, regional, and laminar differences in chromatin accessibility and were correlated with gene expression differences across regions and gestational ages. We identified two functional de novo variants in a pRE for autism risk gene SLC6A1, and using CRISPRa, demonstrated that this pRE regulates SCL6A1. Additionally, mouse transgenic experiments validated enhancer activity for pREs proximal to FEZF2 and BCL11A. Thus, this atlas serves as a resource for decoding neurodevelopmental gene regulation in health and disease.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





754 - 769.e18