Exome sequencing of fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia supports a causal role for NR2F2, PTPN11, and WT1 variants
Schwab ME., Dong S., Lianoglou BR., Aguilar Lucero AF., Schwartz GB., Norton ME., MacKenzie TC., Sanders SJ.
Background: To identify genes associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) to help understand the etiology and inform prognosis. Methods: We performed exome sequencing on fetuses with CDH and their parents to identify rare genetic variants likely to mediate risk. We reviewed prenatal characteristics and neonatal outcomes. Results: Data were generated for 22 parent-offspring trios. Six Likely Damaging (LD) variants were identified in five families (23 %). Three LD variants were in genes that contain variants in other CDH cohorts (NR2F2, PTPN11, WT1), while three were in genes that do not (CTR9, HDAC6, TP53). Integrating these data bolsters the evidence of association of NR2F2, PTPN11, and WT1 with CDH in humans. Of the five fetuses with a genetic diagnosis, one was terminated, two underwent perinatal demise, while two survived until repair. Conclusions: Exome sequencing expands the diagnostic yield of genetic testing in CDH. Correlating CDH patients’ exomes with clinical outcomes may enable personalized counseling and therapies.