Insights into Autism Spectrum Disorder Genomic Architecture and Biology from 71 Risk Loci
Sanders SJ., He X., Willsey AJ., Ercan-Sencicek AG., Samocha KE., Cicek AE., Murtha MT., Bal VH., Bishop SL., Dong S., Goldberg AP., Jinlu C., Keaney JF., Klei L., Mandell JD., Moreno-De-Luca D., Poultney CS., Robinson EB., Smith L., Solli-Nowlan T., Su MY., Teran NA., Walker MF., Werling DM., Beaudet AL., Cantor RM., Fombonne E., Geschwind DH., Grice DE., Lord C., Lowe JK., Mane SM., Martin DM., Morrow EM., Talkowski ME., Sutcliffe JS., Walsh CA., Yu TW., Ledbetter DH., Martin CL., Cook EH., Buxbaum JD., Daly MJ., Devlin B., Roeder K., State MW.
Analysis of de novo CNVs (dnCNVs) from the full Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) (N = 2,591 families) replicates prior findings of strong association with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and confirms six risk loci (1q21.1, 3q29, 7q11.23, 16p11.2, 15q11.2-13, and 22q11.2). The addition of published CNV data from the Autism Genome Project (AGP) and exome sequencing data from the SSC and the Autism Sequencing Consortium (ASC) shows that genes within small de novo deletions, but not within large dnCNVs, significantly overlap the high-effect risk genes identified by sequencing. Alternatively, large dnCNVs are found likely to contain multiple modest-effect risk genes. Overall, we find strong evidence that de novo mutations are associated with ASD apart from the risk for intellectual disability. Extending the transmission and de novo association test (TADA) to include small de novo deletions reveals 71 ASD risk loci, including 6 CNV regions (noted above) and 65 risk genes (FDR ≤ 0.1). Through analysis of de novo mutations in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Sanders et al. find that small deletions, but not large deletions/duplications, contain one critical gene. Combining CNV and sequencing data, they identify 6 loci and 65 genes associated with ASD.