Genome-wide de novo risk score implicates promoter variation in autism spectrum disorder
An JY., Lin K., Zhu L., Werling DM., Dong S., Brand H., Wang HZ., Zhao X., Schwartz GB., Collins RL., Currall BB., Dastmalchi C., Dea J., Duhn C., Gilson MC., Klei L., Liang L., Markenscoff-Papadimitriou E., Pochareddy S., Ahituv N., Buxbaum JD., Coon H., Daly MJ., Kim YS., Marth GT., Neale BM., Quinlan AR., Rubenstein JL., Sestan N., State MW., Willsey AJ., Talkowski ME., Devlin B., Roeder K., Sanders SJ.
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has facilitated the first genome-wide evaluations of the contribution of de novo noncoding mutations to complex disorders. Using WGS, we identified 255,106 de novo mutations among sample genomes from members of 1902 quartet families in which one child, but not a sibling or their parents, was affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In contrast to coding mutations, no noncoding functional annotation category, analyzed in isolation, was significantly associated with ASD. Casting noncoding variation in the context of a de novo risk score across multiple annotation categories, however, did demonstrate association with mutations localized to promoter regions. We found that the strongest driver of this promoter signal emanates from evolutionarily conserved transcription factor binding sites distal to the transcription start site. These data suggest that de novo mutations in promoter regions, characterized by evolutionary and functional signatures, contribute to ASD.