Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

PspA and pneumolysin (Ply) are important protein vaccine candidates. HIV infection is associated with increased susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia and concomitantly high pneumococcal carriage rates. Pneumococcal exposure is immunizing at the mucosa in healthy adults and so we wished to determine if the increased pneumococcal exposure in HIV-infected adults would be associated with altered pneumococcal specific antibody responses. We measured serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA to PspA and Ply in HIV-infected and healthy age-matched adults. Naturally generated anti-Ply and anti-PspA IgG levels but not IgA were significantly increased in HIV-infected subjects in BAL independent of the hyperglobulinaemia commonly associated with HIV. There was therefore no evidence of a defect in mucosal responses to pneumococcal protein antigens among HIV-infected adults. With regard to future vaccination strategies, simply increasing mucosal anti-pneumococcal protein Ig levels, without addressing functional protective response, is not likely to be effective in preventing pneumococcal pneumonia in HIV-infected individuals.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





3469 - 3472


Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), HIV infection, Pneumococcal colonization, Pneumolysin (Ply), PspA, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Africa, Antibodies, Bacterial, Bacterial Proteins, Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid, HIV Infections, Humans, Hypergammaglobulinemia, Immunoglobulin A, Immunoglobulin G, Lung, Pneumococcal Vaccines, Pneumonia, Pneumococcal, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptolysins