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Protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines that protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis, and multiple capsular serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae have had a major impact on invasive bacterial disease in childhood when incorporated into routine infant immunization schedules. However, effectiveness data from the United Kingdom suggest that primary infant immunization alone may not be associated with long-term protection. Both immunological priming and antibody persistence are important aspects of long-term protection induced by these vaccines. An improved understanding of the immunobiology of the B-cell response to these vaccines may direct development of immunization strategies that provide sustained protection.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





3019 - 3023


Antibodies, Bacterial, Antibody Affinity, B-Lymphocyte Subsets, B-Lymphocytes, Bacterial Capsules, Bacterial Vaccines, Child, Haemophilus Vaccines, Humans, Immunization, Secondary, Immunologic Memory, Infant, Meningococcal Vaccines, Plasma Cells, Polysaccharides, Bacterial, Vaccination, Vaccines, Conjugate