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A reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction study of molecular events following solid neural tissue xenogeneic and syngeneic grafts into the mouse caudate nucleus was made between 1 day and 30 days post-grafting. Constitutive expression of interleukin (IL)-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 mRNAs was detected. The sham operation produced minimal cytokine upregulation, indicating that surgical trauma caused minimal damage. A similar picture was seen with syngeneic grafts, which showed good graft survival. Xenografts, however, were rejected within 30 days and cytokine mRNAs for IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-gamma were detected from 7 days post-graft, correlating with histological identification of a leukocytic infiltrate. This method provides a quick, comparative screen for detecting cytokine mRNA profiles in neural grafts and may assist the diagnosis of early rejection phenomena. As such, it is a potential analytical tool for strategies aimed at depleting/blocking the activity of different cell types and/or cytokines in future neural transplant therapy.

Original publication




Journal article


Exp Brain Res

Publication Date





281 - 288


Animals, Caudate Nucleus, Cytokines, Gene Expression, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Nerve Tissue, RNA, Messenger, Rats, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Transplantation, Heterologous, Transplantation, Isogeneic