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AIM: To estimate the effect size of distance education on the readmission of patients with heart failure. DESIGN: This study was a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHOD: Both Persian and English interventional studies focused on investigating the effectiveness of any form of distance education interventions on the readmission of patients with heart failure were retrieved from the main databases: Embase, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, SID, and Google Scholar. Two independent teams screened the articles for eligibility. The Cochrane Risk of bias tool was implemented to evaluate the studies' quality. A random-effects model was applied to pool the effect sizes, I2 was calculated to examine heterogeneity, and Meta-regression was used to investigate the source of heterogeneity. The proposal was registered in the PROSPERO database (no. CRD42020187453). RESULTS: Articles 8836 were retrieved, and 11 articles were selected. Nine studies investigated the effect of distance education on readmission with <12-month follow-up (RR: 0.78 [95% CI 0.67-0.92]) and the I2 of 0.00%; and four studies examined the effect of distance intervention on readmission with 12-month or more follow-up (RR: 0.89 [95% CI 0.73-1.09]) and the I2 of 71.59%.

Original publication




Journal article


Nurs Open

Publication Date



distance education, heart failure, meta-analysis, readmission, systematic review