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Low- and middle-income countries face a high burden of typhoid and paratyphoid fever due to poor water quality and inadequate sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCV) in endemic settings and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, supports TCV introduction. There are currently 2 WHO-prequalified TCVs with Typbar TCV introduced in Pakistan, Liberia, and Zimbabwe. Countries should assess disease burden and consider introduction of TCV for programmatic use. Several paratyphoid vaccine candidates are in early stages of development. An effective bivalent vaccine would be the most efficient way to control typhoid and paratyphoid fever.

Original publication




Journal article


The Journal of infectious diseases

Publication Date





S770 - S774