Human cytomegalovirus epidemiology and relationship to tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural Ugandan cohort.
Stockdale L., Nash S., Nalwoga A., Painter H., Asiki G., Fletcher H., Newton R.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been associated with increased mortality, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD), in high-income countries (HICs). There is a paucity of data in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where HCMV seropositivity is higher. Serum samples from 2,174 Ugandan individuals were investigated for HCMV antibodies and data linked to demographic information, co-infections and a variety of CVD measurements. HCMV seropositivity was 83% by one year of age, increasing to 95% by five years. Female sex, HIV positivity and active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) were associated with an increase in HCMV IgG levels in adjusted analyses. There was no evidence of any associations with risk factors for CVD after adjusting for age and sex. HCMV infection is ubiquitous in this rural Ugandan cohort from a young age. The association between TB disease and high HCMV IgG levels merits further research. Known CVD risk factors do not appear to be associated with higher HCMV antibody levels in this Ugandan cohort.