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Currently used vaccines have had major effects on eliminating common infections, largely by duplicating the immune responses induced by natural infections. Now vaccinology faces more complex problems, such as waning antibody, immunosenescence, evasion of immunity by the pathogen, deviation of immunity by the microbiome, induction of inhibitory responses, and complexity of the antigens required for protection. Fortunately, vaccine development is now incorporating knowledge from immunology, structural biology, systems biology and synthetic chemistry to meet these challenges. In addition, international organisations are developing new funding and licensing pathways for vaccines aimed at pathogens with epidemic potential that emerge from tropical areas.

Original publication




Journal article


J Infect

Publication Date



74 Suppl 1


S2 - S9


CMV, Dengue, HIV, Host immunity, Influenza, Pertussis, RSV, Rotavirus, Structural biology, Vaccinology, Capital Financing, Communicable Diseases, Drug Discovery, Humans, Technology Transfer, Vaccines