Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is an intracellular parasitic infection transmitted to humans via the sandfly. Approximately 350 million people are at risk of contracting the disease and an estimated 1.6 million new cases occur annually. Of the two main forms, visceral and cutaneous, the visceral form is fatal in 85-90% of untreated cases. AIMS: This literature review aims to identify and evaluate the current evidence base for the use of various preventative methods against human leishmaniasis. METHODS: A literature search was performed of the relevant database repositories for primary research conforming to a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS: A total of 84 controlled studies investigating 12 outcome measures were identified, implementing four broad categories of preventative interventions: animal reservoir control, vector population control, human reservoir control and a category for multiple concurrently implemented interventions. The primary studies investigated a heterogeneous mix of outcome measures using a range of different methods. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights an absence of research measuring human-specific outcomes (35% of the total) across all intervention categories. The apparent inability of study findings to be generalizable across different geographic locations, points towards gaps in knowledge regarding the biology of transmission of Leishmania in different settings. More research is needed which investigates human infection as the primary outcome measure as opposed to intermediate surrogate markers, with a focus on developing a human vaccine.

Original publication

DOI

10.1371/journal.pntd.0002278

Type

Journal article

Journal

PLoS Negl Trop Dis

Publication Date

2013

Volume

7

Keywords

Communicable Disease Control, Humans, Leishmaniasis