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Children with Down syndrome (DS) and acute leukemias acute have unique biological, cytogenetic, and intrinsic factors that affect their treatment and outcome. Myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome (ML-DS) is associated with high event-free survival (EFS) rates and frequently preceded by a preleukemia condition, the transient abnormal hematopoiesis (TAM) present at birth. For acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), their EFS and overall survival are poorer than non-DS ALL, it is important to enroll them on therapeutic trials, including relapse trials; investigate new agents that could potentially improve their leukemia-free survival; and strive to maximize the supportive care these patients need.

Original publication




Journal article


Pediatr Clin North Am

Publication Date





121 - 137


B-ALL, Down syndrome, GATA1, Leukemia, Myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome, Preleukemia, Transient abnormal hematopoiesis/transient myeloproliferative disorder, Child, Child, Preschool, Down Syndrome, Humans, Leukemia, Mutation, Preleukemia