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INTRODUCTION: Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) serovars are a major cause of community-acquired bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In this setting, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium accounts for two-thirds of infections and is associated with an estimated case fatality rate of 15%-20%. Several iNTS vaccine candidates are in early-stage assessment which-if found effective-would provide a valuable public health tool to reduce iNTS disease burden. The CHANTS study aims to develop a first-in-human Salmonella Typhimurium controlled human infection model, which can act as a platform for future vaccine evaluation, in addition to providing novel insights into iNTS disease pathogenesis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This double-blind, safety and dose-escalation study will randomise 40-80 healthy UK participants aged 18-50 to receive oral challenge with one of two strains of S. Typhimurium belonging to the ST19 (strain 4/74) or ST313 (strain D23580) lineages. 4/74 is a global strain often associated with diarrhoeal illness predominantly in high-income settings, while D23580 is an archetypal strain representing invasive disease-causing isolates found in SSA. The primary objective is to determine the minimum infectious dose (colony-forming unit) required for 60%-75% of participants to develop clinical or microbiological features of systemic salmonellosis. Secondary endpoints are to describe and compare the clinical, microbiological and immunological responses following challenge. Dose escalation or de-escalation will be undertaken by continual-reassessment methodology and limited within prespecified safety thresholds. Exploratory objectives are to describe mechanisms of iNTS virulence, identify putative immune correlates of protection and describe host-pathogen interactions in response to infection. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from the NHS Health Research Authority (London-Fulham Research Ethics Committee 21/PR/0051; IRAS Project ID 301659). The study findings will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and presented at national/international stakeholder meetings. Study outcome summaries will be provided to both funders and participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05870150.

Original publication




Journal article


BMJ Open

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INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Immunology, Microbiology, Neglected Diseases, Tropical medicine