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Intramyocardial dissection (IMD) with ventricular septal rupture (VSR) following myocardial infarction (MI) is a rare subacute form of cardiac rupture. The evidence available in this regard is scarce. We aimed to share our experience and conduct a systematic review of previous cases. We searched the literature and performed a systematic review of previous cases. A total of 37 cases of IMD with VSR were included (1 our original and 36 literature cases). Mean age was 68 ± 8 years and 20 (54.1%) patients were male. Anterior and inferior MI were observed in 14 (37.8%) and 23 (62.2%) cases, respectively. The dissected area was the septum, RV, both septum and RV, or LV apex in 21 (56.8%), 9 (24.3%), 5 (13.5%), and 2 (5.4%), respectively. Apicoseptal and inferoseptal VSR were observed in 15 (40.5%) and 22 (59.5%) cases, respectively. At least one occluded artery was observed in 29 (90.6%) of cases. Reperfusion therapy was done for 15 (40.5%) cases before the VSR occurred. Surgery, percutaneous, and medical therapy were done for 26 (70.3%), 3 (8.1%), and 7 (18.9%) cases, respectively. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the medical versus surgical-treated group (85.7% versus 42.3%, P = .027). There was a trend to higher mortality in the group with dissection of both septum and RV (P = .15). We concluded that echocardiography has a critical role in diagnosing this complication. Surgery is mandatory in IMD with VSR.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





124 - 131


dissection, myocardial infarction, myocardial rupture, Aged, Dissection, Echocardiography, Female, Humans, Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction, Male, Middle Aged, Myocardial Infarction, Ventricular Septal Rupture