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The capsular group B meningococcal (MenB) four component vaccine (4CMenB) has been licensed for the prevention of invasive disease caused by MenB. The vaccine causes fever in infants, particularly when given in combination (concomitant) with other routinely-administered vaccines (routine), such as the standard diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTP)-containing vaccine. To assess the suitability of a mouse immunisation model to study this phenomenon, we monitored temperature in mice after a second dose of routine vaccines, with or without 4CMenB, and compared the results with those in humans. Using this mouse model, we explored the reactogenicity of 4CMenB components by measuring changes in temperature, cytokines, and gene expression induced by 4CMenB, one of its components, wild-type or attenuated endotoxin outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A significant rise (p 

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Animals, Antibodies, Bacterial, Bacterial Outer Membrane, Endotoxins, Female, Immunization, Immunization Schedule, Interleukin-6, Lipopolysaccharides, Meningococcal Infections, Meningococcal Vaccines, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Neutrophils, Serum Bactericidal Antibody Assay, Transcriptome, Vaccination